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Leather-Making Guides

At Leather Working Group, we champion shared learning and knowledge building across the leather industry. The resources below have been created by industry experts and are free for you to download and share.

These resources are for public consumption only and must not be sold for commercial gain. We ask that the copyright of each resource is respected.

Leather: An Introduction

Author: Richard P. Daniels


This introduction to leather describes the versatility of this unique material, its natural origins, how it is made, and why its properties are so comprehensive.

Created for people who have little knowledge of this product, the details provided are supported by industrial images and clear descriptive diagrams. It is suited for those involved in the manufacture of leather items, for students new to the sector, and for general interest.

It enables comparisons with plastics, laminates and conglomerates of binders/natural materials - as long as their origins, composition, properties and environmental profiles are similarly detailed.

This document was subjected to peer review at the International Conference of the Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists, Northampton, UK, 2019.

Making Leather: An Overview of Manufacture

Author: Richard P. Daniels


Making Leather: An Overview of Manufacture, is a 10-Part study for people who wish to become leather technicians, and those who need more than the most basic understanding of commercial leather manufacture. It is intended for use and dissemination free of charge.

Created for self-training and distance learning within the global leather sector, it follows the processes and operations used, and their purposes, for making leather from bovine hides, sheep and goat skins.

The Information is set down clearly as a 30,000 word study supported by 300 photographs and diagrams from within the industrial environment. It is designed for use via smart phone, but also suits larger display within formal education for discussion or expansion by suitably qualified staff.

Peer reviewed, it is recommended by Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists (S.L.T.C.), The United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (U.N.I.D.O.), and the International Union of Leather Technologists and Chemists (I.U.L.T.C.S.)

Modern Cow Leather Processing

Produced by: Leather Naturally  


The Leather Naturally guide to modern leather making has been written for anyone that wants to know more about leather. Are you a designer, developer  or student that wants to learn more about the process? A retailer or working in a consumer facing role and wants to understand the process behind this natural material better to help you engage with your customers? Or just someone that wants to refresh your knowledge?

Set out in clear, easy to understand terms it is an indispensable tool that covers everything from hide structure, through tannery processes, leather properties, control and best environmental practice.

CETP Issues

CETP Issues list
Date Recorded (last updated) Industial area / CETP Concerned Comments Auditor(s)
17 Jan 2023 TALCO Dingigul (Dingigul CETP) 

This CETP is functional with satisfactory compliance, demonstrated compliance to conditions of consent orders, during approved LWG audits undertaken November 2022. Approved LWG auditors visited the CETP and checked the manifests of the hazardous waste disposals as well as ensuring hazardous wastes are in secured storage before disposal. Currently there seem to be no issues. Need to monitor continuously.


Munusamy / Belaji Velu

17 Jan 2023 Vanitec CETP

During September 2017, the CETP (Vanitec) appeared in local media regarding non-compliance issues. This prompted the authorities to undertake an inspection at the site, only to find it was compliant. Additionally, an Approved LWG Auditor undertook an LWG CETP assessment in 2018 as a pilot case audit at the CETP. The reports were accepted. Further to this, there have been several audits undertaken by Approved LWG auditor at leather manufacturing sites connected to the CETP, and the CETP has also been visited on many audit occasions. The CETP seems to be operating well within the permit condition. Currently there seem to be no issues.



17 Jan 2023 Pallavaram Tanners Industrial Effluent Treatment Company This CETP was under expansion with additional tertiary processing and obtained an exemption for the discharge limits on TDS from the CETP. The TNPCB extended its permission until 31/03/2023. An LWG Approved Auditor recently visit the CETP in connection with an audit (Gemini Enterprises). The CETP seems to be improving constructively, currently there seems to be no issues.



20 Jan 2023 Savar and Hazaribagh area The LWG will not be carrying out any audits in the areas of Savar or Hazaribagh due to the ongoing relocation of tanners in this area, Central Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) and solid waste management have not yet been completed for some tanners in these areas as the government has instructed all operations of tanners to be moved to Savar. As a result, not all tanners have relocated and therefore have not been awarded any certificates, they have reported a loss of export as a result of not being certified by LWG. No further audits are to be carried out in these areas until further notice.  
26 January 2022 Challawa, Sharada, and Bompai industrial areas of Kano, Nigeria

The reason for adding these areas as being of concern is an article published in EnviroNews Nigeria entitled “NESREA seals 12 industries in Kano, five in Adamawa, two in Kwara” accessible via It is understood that some tanneries have their own WWTP so it is not a blanket ban, only for those discharging to a CETP. Any proposed audit of a tannery in one of the three industrial areas indicated should first be approved by LWG.


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